Thursday, May 21, 2020
Where in the first world would one expect the teen pregnancy rate to be the highest? Surprisingly, it is the United States that has the highest teen pregnancy rate of any first world country, more than double the rate of twenty other first world countries and almost ten times greater than that of Switzerland. While some of the disparity can be attributed to factors such as income inequality, the presence of abstinence only education has a major impact on birth and STD rates in the United States in comparison to other countries with more comprehensive programs. It is clear that this difference in approaches has a significant effect, and the United States needs to act to ensure the health of its citizens. Urgent actions are necessaryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Federal funding has played a large role in this increase, as monetary incentives have been the driving force behind much of the change. To put it in numbers, the amount of federal dollars going to schools that adopted abstinen ce only programs almost tripled in the seven years between 1998 and 2005, increasing from 60 to 168 million dollars a year (Santelli, 75). And among United States school districts that changed their policies, twice as many chose to adopt a curriculum that more heavily focused on abstinence only until marriage as moved towards a more comprehensive program (Landry). This disturbing statistic shows how effective the religious right has been in pushing abstinence only programs in face of a dearth of evidence as to their effectiveness. This effectiveness is mainly due to intense lobbying funded by individuals and organizations on the far right. One man, Raymond Ruddy, has personally put 1.5 million dollars towards advocacy and lobbying for abstinence only programs (Eaton). While lobbying like this commonly happens on both sides of the aisle, in this case public opinion goes against what people like Raymond Ruddy say is necessary. According to a recent study, Ninety-eight percent of paren ts say they want HIV/AIDS discussed in sex education classes; 85% want how to use condoms discussed; 84% think sex education should cover how to use and where to get other birth control, and 76% wantShow MoreRelatedShould Sex Education Be Taught? Abstinence Only Education?1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSexual education in schools has become a highly controversial topic over the past few years. Some people believe students should be taught abstinence-only education, while others believe students need the full on Ã¢â¬Å"sex talkÃ¢â¬ . While the sex education controversy may seem silly, it is very important that students receive the most efficient education possible. When it comes to education parents want their children to receive the most effective kind. This is also very true in terms of sex education. SexRead More Abstinence-Only vs. Comprehensive Sex Education Essay2397 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesthe early 1980s the issue of sex education for American youth has had the attention of the nation. There are about 400,000 teen births every year in the U.S, with about 9 billion in associated public costs. STI contraction in general, as well as teen pregnancy, have put the subject even more so on the forefront of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s leading issues. The approach and method for proper and effective sex education has been hotly debated. Some believe that teaching abstinence-only until marriage is the best methodRead MoreAbstinence-Only vs. Comprehensive-Based Sex Education1301 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstinence-Only vs. Comprehensive-Based Sex Education Sexual Education is a controversial topic and many people have pushed for abstinence-only programs. The United States has alarmingly high rates of teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence when compared to other advanced countries. Even though there may be minimal differences in the amount of sexual activity in other countries, the U.S. still prevails in high rates of teenage pregnancy, births and abortions (KohlerRead MoreEssay on Abstinence-Only Sex Education does work.1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstinence-only Sex Education does work. Teenage sexual activity has sparked an outcry within the nation. With such activity comes a high price. Studies have shown that there has been a significant rise in the number of children with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), emotional and psychological problems, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Sex has always been discussed publically by the media, television shows, music and occasionally by parents and teachers in educational context. Teens hear themRead More Sex Education in Schools: Abstinence-Only Programs Essay2013 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSex Education in Schools: Abstinence-Only Programs Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and teenage pregnancy. The existence of HIV/AIDS has given a sense of urgency to the topic of sex education. The issue of sex education in schools especially in the formative years has been a subject of intense debate among parents, school officials, health scientists and religious authorities worldwideRead MoreShould Abstinence Only Sex Education?869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesused sex education approach follows the beliefs of the church (Delamater, J. D. Lecture 9/29/14). The sex negativity of the Christian tradition stems from the philosophies of Stoicism and Neo-Platonism which both enforce that sex is solely for procreation. (Delamater, 2014, p. 483) The Christian belief that abstinence is the only moral way to avoid STIs and pregnancy has led to the incorporation of abstinence-only sex education courses in schools. The myth that abstinenc e-only sex education causesRead MoreShould Abstinence Only Sex Education?928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen I was in the eighth grade, I remember attending a sex education course. At the young impressionable age of fourteen, I listened quietly as the lecturer showed us grotesque pictures of sexually transmitted infections and warned us that abstinence was the only effective way to not get pregnant. At the end of lecture, everyone at the assembly was handed a little card that read, Ã¢â¬Å"Virginity PledgeÃ¢â¬ and we were all required to sign them. Looking back on this memory, I am appalled by the severe lackRead MoreAbstinence Only Sexual Education Vs. Inclusive Sex Education Essay2399 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAbstinence-Only Sexual Education vs. Inclusive Sexual Education In 1981, the Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) was signed into law by President Reagan. Through the act, the federal government first invested in sexual education programs, all of which encouraged Ã¢â¬Å"chastity and self-discipline.Ã¢â¬ After this came the Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage program, which was created in 1996 as part of the welfare reform legislation. Finally, the Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE), was created inRead MoreSex Education Is More Beneficial Than Abstinence Only Education1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessometimes in every day life sex education is a topic on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Whether this topic is taught in detail rather than in avoidance of the action is the debate we need to have. It is almost impossible to go all of our lives without being exposed to some level of education of sexual activity. Sometimes that education is associated with positivity and other times it is comparable to the sin of all sins. Sex education is more beneficial than abstinence only education because those taught to avoidRead MoreTeenage Pregnancies And Std Contraction1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin rates of teenage pregnancies and STD contraction. What is it about the US and its approach to sexual education that produces such numbers amongst its youth? The prevailing sexuality education system in the US is abstinence-only sex education programs. Abstinence-only-until-marriage education in schools is highly destructive to its students in multiple ways. Abstinence-only sexuality education does more harm to students than good, and is shown to have adverse effects on its students. The CDC Youth
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the early 1600s, colonies such as Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Maryland, were built on various religious principles. In addition to the colonist focus on gaining their independence and having the freedom to live as they chose; away for England s ruling. However, religion was a major battle for those upcoming settlements. Many had their own perception of what they thought was the truth about the Bible and if anyone opposed their belief, harm was due to them. Around this time, many searched earnestly for the truth, so to find it, they came up with different denominations of Christianity such as Puritans, Protestants, and Catholic. These religions drifted away from Biblical principles and turned to what individuals chose to believe and/or not believe. By this, colonies of Rhode Island, Maryland, and Massachusetts were built and greatly influenced by such beliefs. In Massachusetts, John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, told his fellow Puritans that they were a chosen people on a divine mission (Tindall 71). Which led them to the desire of wanting to set an example for England of what godly people looked like. Winthrop was a man who believed in leading religiously and in order; not democratically. By this, if you were a Dissenter, religions such as Quakers or Catholics, you were persecuted and sometimes it lead to death. Those who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t PuritanÃ¢â¬â¢s had very few rights and one would be the right to vote (Tindall 73). The government of theShow MoreRelatedAmerican Pageant Chapter 31102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700 Ã The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Martin LutherÃ .Ã He declared that the Bible alone was the source of Gods words.Ã He started the Protestant Reformation. John CalvinÃ He spelled out his doctrine in 1536 calledÃ Institutes of the Christian Religion.Ã He formedÃ Calvinism.Ã King Henry VIII formed the Protestant Church.Ã There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quicklyRead MorePrimary Cause Of The Pequot War701 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The main events surrounding the Pequot War occurred between 1637 and 1638. The parties involved were the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies along with Native Americans from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes against the Pequot tribe.Ã¢â¬ 1633 the Dutch negotiated a treaty to settle on the Connecticut River with the Pequot. Within a year after that, in 1634, the Pequot and Narragansett battles on the Connecticut River periodically. Two generals were killed at that time, and later they figured outRead MoreThe Causes of American Revolution Essay1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe American Revolution was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America and their parent country, Great Britain. The war resulted in the colonies becoming a separate nation, the United Stated of Am erica. It is also known as the American War of Independence. The Seven Years War left Great Britain with the expensive responsibility of administering newly acquired territory in North America. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to raise revenueRead MoreThe American Revolutionary War And Defeat Great Britain852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWe as Americans represent this event in celebrating Independence Day. On July 4th of every year Americans celebrate the departure and independence we obtained from Great Britain. It was the British who controlled and basically owned the Thirteen Colonies of North America in which we now know as the United States. Making the lives of American citizens miserable and unable to bare the bondage from the rules, regulations, and tariffs brought on by the British could no longer be tolerated. If all menRead MoreJohn Winthrop s The Puritan1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Winthrop wanted to purify the church; however, the government in England made this particularly hard and eventually this is what led to Winthr op leaving England for the New World to solve the Puritan Dilemma. The Puritan Dilemma was a figurative battle between the Church of England and the Puritan religion. It was also a real threat with opposing religions that would come and threaten the Puritans way of life. John Winthrop recognized these problems and sought to remedy them. In the early 1600Ã¢â¬â¢sRead More Native Americans Essays603 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages In the early days of English settlement in the American colonies, the Indian-European relationship of each area was the determining factor in the survival of the newly established colonies. By working together and exchanging methods of food production and survival, an English colony could maintain its population and continue to support the arrival of new settlers. However, a colony that had trouble maintaining ties with their Indian neighbors had a tough time attracting settlers and adapting toRead MoreAmerican Revolution - Summary Essay example939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFour workers are shot by British troops stationed in Boston. The American Patriots labeled the killings The Boston Massacre. 1773- Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protest the British Tea Act by dumping crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. The British Tea Act was when the British increased the taxes on tea that were shipped to the colonies. 1774- Benjamin Franklin and the First Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia. 1775- Shots are fired at Lexington and ConcordRead MoreEvents Of The American Revolution1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestook place in Europe, India and North America. The English and French fought for the total control of the colonies in North America, the Caribbean, and in India. While the English ended up winning the war, they were left with a debt so enormous it almost destroyed the British government. One of the ways the British government tried to shrink their debt was by collecting taxes from the colonies in America. One of the first taxes was the Sugar Act, which imposed taxes on sugar. Although resented, theRead MoreHow Did America Become America?1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesall for the thirteen colonies, but the colonies began differently in the north, middle, and south. The colonies built the north and south of America. The original thirteen colonies of America were founded on the eastern coast of what is now the United States between the years of 1607 and 1733. Originally, the c olonies belonged to the English, the Dutch, and the Swedish. By the time of the American Revolution, the colonies were all under British control. The thirteen colonies were divided into threeRead MoreThe s Present And Past History During The Time Of The Revolutionary War Essay1029 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Give me liberty or give me death.Ã¢â¬ This quote was spoken by Patrick Henry. This paper will discuss MassachusettÃ¢â¬â¢s present and past history during the time of the Revolutionary War; as well as the causes of the war, Sons of Liberty, and important battles. Boston was where the action began. It began with taxes being raised, acts being made, such as the Stamp act. They were upset because legislature was taxing the Americans without a representative for the people(Bomboy). British forces arriving was
Organization Behavior of Bangladesh Railway In: Social Issues Organization Behavior of Bangladesh Railway An Assignment ON Organization behavior Submitted To: Dr. Syeda Lasna Kabir Associate Professor Dept. of Public Administration University of Dhaka. We will write a custom essay sample on Bd Railway or any similar topic only for you Order Now Submitted By: Md. Rajvi Hasan Roll No: MMÃ¢â¬â098 4th Year; 7th Semester Dept. of Public Administration University of Dhaka. Submission Date: 16th May 2011. Assignment topic A Research on Bangladesh Railway [pic] ? Introduction: Roads Railways Division is one of the important Divisions in the Government under the Ministry of Communication. Ministry of Communication comprises two Divisions, 1. Roads Railways Division and 2. Bridges Division. Roads Railways Division shoulders a vast task and plays a vital role in socio-economic development of our country. It governs the Departments/Organizations which are playing very important roles in building our new nation. These are : (1) Roads Highways Department (RHD), (2) Bangladesh Railway, (3) Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA), (4) Bangladesh Road Transport corporation (BRTC), (5) Dhaka Transport Co-ordination Board and (6) The office of the Government Inspector of Bangladesh Railways (GIBR). The principal motto of this Division is to ensure improvement of socio-economic condition of the people of our country through formulating policies regarding roads, road transports and railways and through construction, development, expansion and maintenance of environment-friendly and user-friendly integrated roads and railway transportation. Bangladesh Railway (BR) is the state-owned rail transport agency of Bangladesh. It operates and maintains the entire railway network of the country. Railway operation in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Bangladesh began on November 15, 1862 when 53. 11 kilometers of 5Ã ftÃ 6Ã inÃ (1,676Ã mm) (broad gauge) line were opened for traffic between Darsana and Jagiti. The next 14. 98 kilometers 1,000Ã mmÃ (3Ã ftÃ 3Ã 3? 8Ã in) (meter gauge) line was opened for traffic on 4 January 1885. In 1891, the construction of then Bengal Assam Railway was taken up by the British Government assistance but that was later on taken over by the Bengal Assam Railway Company. On 1 July 1895, two sections of meter gauge lines were opened between Chittagong and Comilla, a length of 149. 89 kilometers and between Laksam and Cahndpur, a length of 50. 89 kilometers. Railway Companies formed in England took up the construction and operation of these sections in middle and late 19th century. At time of the partition of India in 1947, Bengal-Assam Railway was split up and the portion of the system, about 2,603. 92 kilometers fell within the boundary of then East Pakistan and control remained with the central Government of Pakistan. Later with the effect from 1 February 1961, Eastern Bengal Railway was renamed as Pakistan Eastern Railway. Then in 1962, the control of Pakistan Eastern Railway was transferred from the Central Government to the Government of East Pakistan and placed under the management of a Railway Board with the effect from the financial year 1962-63 by the presidential Order of 9 June 1962. As of 2005, the total length of railroad is 2,855 kilometres. Of that, 660Ã km are broad gauge tracks (mostly in the western region), 1,830Ã km are metre gauge tracks (mostly in the central and eastern regions) and 365Ã km are dual gauge tracks The gauge problem is being tackled by adding third rails to the most important broad and metre gauge routes, so that they become dual gauge. A major road-rail bridge at Jamuna opened in 1998 to connect the previously detached east and west rail networks. On March 2008, the broad gauge reached Dhaka, the national capital. Funding is being sought to upgrade the network and transform Bangladesh Railway into a profitable business. BR exceeded its target revenue earnings in the fiscal year 2007-2008. Bangladesh Railway provides various types of services ranging from shuttle service for university students to freight and cargo service. But still BR could not make profit as it is providing services to the nation at a subsidised rate in order to help the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and for the ease of people. Objective: The objectives of this study are 1) To understand evaluate the departmentalization of the BR. 2) To know the Spam of Control system of this organization. 3) To analyze the applicability of the theory of Ã¢â¬ËJob SpecializationÃ¢â¬â¢ in this selected organization. Rationale of the study: We have to overview the internal coordinating mechanism, internal environment the technology, age and the size of the organization. Because without knowing these features we canÃ¢â¬â¢t evaluate an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy, efficiency, working environment in true sense. Research Question: The questions which will lead us to the research: 1. How does the span of control will work in BR? 2. What is the departmentalization of BR? 3. How job specialization is occurred? Hypothesis: On which the research are based on: 1. If it is a bureaucratic structure then the job specialization, departmentalization will be strict. . If it is a matrix structure, then job specialization, departmentalization will be much flexible than the previous one Research Methodology: 1. Content Analysis which is most common method for all types of research. The related books, publications, newspapers, internet sources etc have given information about the total scenario of the organiz ation. 2. I have interviewed few officials to understand the situation of that org. Area of focus: The area we are focusing on: Bangladesh Railway Head Office, Top khana, Dhaka. And, Bangladesh Railway Administrative Building, Kamlapur, Dhaka. Limitations of the study: 1. I had very little time to complete this study. 2. I did not have enough experience to do such studies. 3. As the data are collected from key informants at their working hours, there is chance of not receiving exact accurate information 4. I faced non cooperation from some of the employees. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chapterization: 1. Introduction: The railway department is a semi-autonomous organization under the The Ministry of Communications. This study intends to find out the internal coordinating mechanism, how does it cope with the external environment. The whole system of communication, tasks, coordinating mechanism prevails around organizational structure. Job specialization departmentalization are the two vital features of organization. And these two are hugely depended on that. If it follows a bureaucratic structure, then the job specialization departmentalization will be as rigid as the bureaucracy. And if it follows a matrix structure, then it will be more open to the environment. 2. Theoretical Framework: In this study, we will try to define these with the following theories: Job Specialization: The method of job specialization involves breaking down a task to its lowest level and designing jobs around each part. This creates specialization, expertise, and improved quality. Job specialization design in the workplace is frequently seen in manufacturing and assembly lines where a worker focuses on one specific task and ability during the entire work shift. The task frequently repeats all day long. Specialization is the process of performing a certain task which makes a person be in limited in performing other activities out of work she/he is specializes purposely. Job descriptions are written statements that describe the: Ã¢â¬ ¢ duties, Ã¢â¬ ¢ responsibilities, Ã¢â¬ ¢ most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position, Ã¢â¬ ¢ required qualifications of candidates, and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reporting relationship and coworkers of a particular job. Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work. Job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. Job descriptions also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions. The best job descriptions are living, breathing documents that are updated as responsibilities change. The best job descriptions do not limit employees, but rather, cause them to stretch their experience, grow their skills, and develop their ability to contribute within their organization. Departmentalization: Departmentalization refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labor creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments. The main types of departmentalization are- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Functional departmentalization Ã¢â¬â Grouping activities by functions performed. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, and engineering. Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organizations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product departmentalization Ã¢â¬â Grouping activities by product line. Tasks can also be grouped according to a specific product or service, thus placing all activities related to the product or the service under one manager. Each major product area in the corporation is under the authority of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is responsible for, everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of company that uses product departmentalization. Its structure s based on its varied product lines which include womenÃ¢â¬â¢s footwear, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s footwear and menÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ footwear. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer departmentalization Ã¢â¬â Grouping activities on the basis of common customers or types of customers. Jobs may be grouped according to the type of customer served by the organization. The assumption is that customers in each department have a common set of problems and ne eds that can best be met by specialists. The sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three departments that serve retail, wholesale and government accounts. Geographic departmentalization Ã¢â¬â Grouping activities on the basis of territory. If an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s customers are geographically dispersed, it can group jobs based on geography. For example, the organization structure of Coca-Cola has reflected the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation in two broad geographic areas Ã¢â¬â the North American sector and the international sector, which includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Process departmentalization Ã¢â¬â Grouping activities on the basis of product or service or customer flow. Because each process requires different skills, process departmentalization allows homogenous activities to be categorized. For example, the applicants might need to go through several departments namely validation, licensing and treasury, before receiving the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license. Span of control: The span of control refers to number of employees that directly report to a single manager. Span of control determines the structure of an organization, a narrow span of control results in hierarchal organization while broad span of control leads to flat structure. Since management represents the activities that do not directly result in productivity, they are rather a overhead, span of control determines the additional operational cost. Quantitatively,Ã companywide overhead can be calculated by dividing the total number of management staff with the size of organization. Span of control formulation What is an optimal ratio of manger to direct reports without compromising the productivity? It is a fundamental problem in designing the structure of an organization; empirically this range is pretty wide, from 4 to 22 depending upon the nature of work. In 1933, V. A. Graicunas, a paris based consultant formulated the span of control based on number of direct and indirect relationships that a superior has to manage. Graicunas identified three types of relationships: 1. Number of direct relationships between manager and subordinate, it represents the span of control. 2. Number of peer-to-peer relationships, it represent issues due to interpersonal conflicts. Note that each pair of peers represent 2 relationships and not 1, if there are two subordinates, dick and jane, dick might have different concern for jane than janeÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for dick. Hence for a manger, they represent 2 different set of problems and not one. 3. Data analysis ; data presentation: Bangladesh Railway is one of the most efficient ; large departments of GOB. Since the Department was founded the size of the major rail network in Bangladesh has grown. The Department is headed by a Director General who is supported by a number of officers. The total number of personnel in the Department is almost 35,000. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a huge number for any organization. To control this kind of large organizations, one needs to have very strong Span of control or line of authority. BR has that. pic] After independence, the railway was first supervised by a Railway Board which was abolished in 1982. Thereafter, the BR came under the jurisdiction of the Railway Division of the Ministry of Communications with the Secretary of the Division working as the Director General of BR. In 1995, instead of being the part of the Ministry, BR came under control of a professional Director General supervised by the Bangladesh Railway Authority that is chaired by the Minister of Communications. As the part of the Bureaucracy, BRfollows the BURREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE, which refers to the Tall Organization. According to the concept it is appropriate for Bureaucratic Organizations. But, it causes some disadvantages too. DEPARTMENTALIZATION can be described as grouping employees on the basis of the similarity of expertise, knowledge. It enhances the success rate of an organization. As BR is a huge organization, itÃ¢â¬â¢s divided into several departments on the basis of the similar functions. BR is divided into two zones, East ; West, each under control of a general manager who is accountable to the Director General of Bangladesh Railway. The two zones have their separate departments or operation, maintenance, and finances. Each zone is divided into two divisions that contain departments for Personnel, Transportation, Commercial, Finance Mechanical, Way and Works Signaling ; Telecommunication, Electrical, Medical, etc. Each zone also has its Workshop Divisions, located at Pahartali and Saidpur, respectively. A locomotive workshop is located at Parbatipur for broad and metre gauge locomot ives. BR manages its own Railway Training Academy. A separate Directorate under the Ministry of Communications is charged to inspect different works of BR in relation to safety. Job Specialization is the process of performing a certain task which makes a person be in limited in performing other activities out of work she/he is specializes purposely. It enables employees to become very skilled ; productive at their assigned task. Another motive of departmentalization is to ensure job specialization. It is usually seen that every department of an organization is assigned to those functions or tasks at which they are expert. The downside of job specialization tends to be that people can only do one task. They arenÃ¢â¬â¢t trained to multitask or handle multiple areas of a workplace. As a result, when a critical expertise is lost, the process can suffer. Additionally, workers under job specialization donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a wide array of applicable skills, so it becomes hard for them to adapt to a new function or need in the organization. It creates monopoly this means after specialization certain field of work may lead into boredom to the worker. Efficient administration of BR is also hindered by lack of rules and regulations that have been approved by the Board but are awaiting Government approval as well. Which creates delay to the recruitment process. Conclusion: Removing the old shield, the whole world is intending to get more modernized. But still we are following the hundreds years old Ã¢â¬ËBureaucracy systemÃ¢â¬â¢ which has caused nothing but losses. Being a Bureaucratic organization or part BR is no different. They are still following the traditional bureaucratic model with no flexibility. Everything in the organization prevails according to the law ; regulation. Job specialization or departmentalization is fixed. They canÃ¢â¬â¢t work out of it, even in an emergency. There is little chance for the subordinates to present their ideas or opinions by crossing seniors. They maintain a very strict line of authority, where managers have the supreme authority. This may be the traditional bureaucratic role. But it has to change according to the needs of this millennium. As like the private organizations RHD officials should be given more freedom, authorization to take faster decision. Only then the organizational goal of customer satisfaction can be achieved. Reference: 1. http://www. railway. gov. bd 2. Class lectures 3. Railway Information book 4. Mr. Ahsanullah Bhuiyan, Deputy Director, Bangladesh Railway. 5. Mr. Sarwar Alam, Asstt. Commercial Officer, Bangladesh Railway. [pic] How to cite Bd Railway, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Research Proposal on Phonics Essay Phonics is the method of the school learning of the language or more general in linguistics. The system of pronunciation is the methodology which teaches to read words dividing them into letters and phonemes and then vice versa create full syllables and words from phonemes and letters. The method of phonics was the substitution of the previous popular system called syllable reading based on the teaching practice based on the interpretation, not separate letters but syllables, for example, STU-DY. The method of phonics transferred this approach into such way of teaching: S-T-U-D-Y when the child observes every letter to catch the right order of the letter in the word. The method of phonics first appeared in Germany in the 19th century, and it is quite useful for the learning of the languages which possess the same pronunciation and writing of their words. For example, the German language is quite simple for reading, because the person reads the word letter for letter (the combinations of letters seldom create a single sound). We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Phonics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Phonics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Phonics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The use of phonics in the English language is quite a troublesome practice because the majority of the English words do not sound the same as they are written (for example, it is possible to confuse the words Ã¢â¬Å"nightÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"knightÃ¢â¬ ). The new way substituted the method of phonics called the Whole language, which is based on the understanding of the logical processes, spelling, and phonetics. So, the phonics is quite a useful approach towards the teaching of reading, but it should be applied to the learning of the languages which can accept the methodology without confusion and misunderstanding. Phonics is an interesting problem for the research for every student who is interested in pedagogy, linguistics, and phonetics in particular. The student can observe the issue of phonics and share his own opinion about the method with the professor writing a research proposal which dwells on the pluses and minuses of the methodology of the system. The young professional can focus on the points and aspects attractive to him and apply phonics in the brand new situations and practice. It is essential to provide the methods of the research of the paper and find the right sources to collect the reliable and up-to-date arguments. The student can prepare a worthy research proposal if he communicates with the expert or at least looks through a quality free example research proposal on phonics written by the well-trained writer online. The student can catch the entire process and manner of writing, the research approach and formatting of the text using a free sample research proposal on phonics observed by an expert adequately. At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Phonics topics. Your proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
buy custom Structure and Development of Australian Curriculum essay The Australian curriculum defines what the young Australian students are to be taught, and the quality of learning expected from them as they advance through schooling. The structure of the Australian curriculum Generally, the overall structure of the Australian curriculum is constant across learning areas. It entails the following elements: A rationale-It shows the position and intent of the learning area in the curriculum. Aims- They portray the learning imparted in the students from learning the curriculum. An organization overview- It provides an outline of how the curriculum in a particular area will be organized, from Prep to Year 12. Content descriptions-They specify the teaching expected from the teachers, and go hand in hand with elaborations that specify the content descriptions. Achievement standards-They illustrate the quality of learning that is expected of learners and they go along with work samples, which indicate the achievement standards through the annotated work of the students. General capabilities- They illustrate a set of skills, conduct and dispositions applicable across content based on the subjects. Cross-curriculum priorities-They uphold the significance of the curriculum to the students' lives and addresses the present-day issues they encounter. Organization of the Curriculum with regard to: Scope of the Australian Curriculum It is written to explain the growth and maturity of young people across the schooling years. It considers the diverse requirements of the entire Australian students, as well as, the knowledge, skills and understanding that the students are required to learn with regard to cross-curriculum priorities, learning areas and general capabilities. It focuses on design and technology, civics and citizenship, business, health and physical education, information and communications technology and economics. It explains to the teachers the content to be taught, and dictates to the students, what to learn and the level of quality learning expected from them. Its clarity enables schools to decide on how best to execute the curriculum, drawing on amalgamated approaches where essential. They also adopt instructive approaches that account for the students' needs and interests, as well as, of the school and community. Levels of learning The curriculum focuses on offering an entitlement to all students, while recognizing that the students' needs and interests are subject to vary. As such, it aims to support teachers and schools, in response to the varying needs and interests. It conveys what the students need to learn and highlights the extra learning alternatives. The levels of learning in the Australian Curriculum as are as follows: Foundation Year to Year 2 This level entails students ranging from five to eight years of age. The curriculum realizes the significance of building relationships, language and communication. It prioritizes foundation knowledge in children, as well as, understanding and skills required to be developed in the children, so as to increase their chances for progressive learning. Essentially, this level gives priority to numeracy (in Mathematics) and literacy (in English) development, since they are the foundations for advanced learning. Other contexts such as technology, geography, history and science strengthen numeracy and literacy. In this level, students have a chance to expand their affective, cognitive and sensory appreciation of their environment, through creative and exploratory learning. Years 38 Students at this level are normally 8 and 14 years old. The curriculum is organized through defined learning areas. It outlines and promotes connections between learning areas in order to intensify understanding and knowledge, since students are advancing from tangible to intangible thinking. Their thinking processes are more logical and constant, and theybecome more autonomous learners. At this stage, students value the learning they deem as significant to their goals. The transition process from primary to secondary school is accompanied by cognitive, physical, social and emotional changes. Thus, this level entails a more inclusive education. Additional learning is offered in social sciences, humanities, technologies and arts. Students can select extra study areas that match their needs and interests. Years 910 The middle and upper secondary schooling years are a transition to maturity. Students clearly perceive their interests, goals and strengths. At this level, they regard issues of human knowledge and the environment. The curriculum broadens understanding and knowledge in each of these areas. It considers numerous aspects of the students, including opportunities to develop and deepen initial learning, essentially through national cadetships and vocationally oriented courses, in order to augment achievement and uphold student participation. Senior secondary years of schooling (Years 11-12) The curriculum at this level is written for students between 16 to 18 years old, with a view of providing students with better opportunities to make effectual choices, in and out of school. The choices are largely dictated by earlier accomplishments and enjoyment, future training, employment or learning alternatives, and the setting upon which the learning is to transpire. The curriculum offers more specialization opportunities in learning at school, through professional education and training. The Australian curriculum has eight chief learning areas for Prep to Year 12. These are mathematics, English, Design and technology, Humanities and social sciences, Health and physical education, Languages, Arts and Science. How is it related to the various models of curriculum that have been discussed in your texts and readings? As other curriculums, it does not offer a specific approach to teaching. However, it does and should gratify the range of learners. Teachers have a choice to employ learning theories such as Gardners multiple intelligences and Bloom's taxonomy, based on their relevance to the students. An inquiry approach is necessary in History and Science. How does the curriculum relate to various definitions of curriculum i.e. does it encompass a broad view or a very specific view of curriculum? The curriculum is inherently extensive in methods of content delivery. It does not endeavor to offer a specific pedagogy. Instead, it offers a range of examples and views through which to convey the content descriptions. The achievement standards are also extensive, with regard to the accessible assessment modes. Normally, the content gets specific when describing what must be taught in the content, as well as, the achievement standards, which depict the expected levels of achievement. What view is promoted about the purpose or goal of education? The curriculum promotes the view that education plays a vital role in molding the young students, who will assume future accountability for Australia. For it to serve this purpose effectively, education must attend to the personal, social and intellectual development of the young Australian students. A good education is valuable to the students and the entire community, as it justifies their investments of effort, resources and time. Education equips students with skills that enable them to address the constantly varying individual and societal expectations, thus enabling students and society members to be more industrious, sustainable and just. What view does it have about the learner? i.e. How the curriculum is informed by factors such as learning theory, philosophy and human development. The Australian curriculum, both at the local and national levels aims for learners to develop a firm foundation in knowledge and acquire an affirmative perception of skills and morals that will further learning and present a stand on which to construct a solid adult life. The range of learning areas allows tthe learner to advance in the general capabilities, which allows critical and flexible thinking. This creates the capacity for effectual collaboration of students across disciplines, promoting innovation through translation of new ideas into practical applications. With regard to philosophy, the curriculum strives to impart a pre-eminent role to the educational goals and purposes of the young Australian students. It imparts a positive contribution to the general capabilities the young students endeavor to obtain. Its design incorporates health and development as Unit 1's starting point, since numerous learners at this stage are at the initial lifespan phase of youth. The study of human development progresses through the stages, and it aims at expanding and enhancing the youth choices and capabilities, encouraging them to partake in their community's life, as well as in decisions that affect their lives, and allowing them to have access to health, knowledge and decent living standards. What are the processes of teaching, learning and assessment that are valued? Teaching: For effective teaching, teachers must: Partner with parents, health professionals, and other teachers as well, in order to share proficiencies and formulate solutions to alleviate particular problems Shun flawed assumptions about the nature of the needed expertise to be taught to the students, by being conversant with the necessary skills from the education system advisors and from other researchers. Develop a detailed and current program of subject knowledge, along with together with the development of the child and the adolescent. Have an ample understanding of how well each student learns specific skills. This is best achieved by using structured observation. Be well-versed on a variety of approaches from which to draw well-versed pedagogical choices, with regard to the learner's and the context's traits. Learning: Good learning processes entail the following five aspects: Clarifying: Before beginning a task, the learner must know what to do. Exploring and selecting: Before undertaking the task, the learner must mull over the various ways of executing the task, and pick the most suitable way. Acting: The learner must do the task to an appropriate standard. Monitoring: During the action the learner must intentionally check to ascertain that the undertaking is being correctly executed. 5. Assessing and evaluating: Upon completion, the learner must evaluate the entire performance and check for ways the task could be improved. Assessment: Effective processes for assessment incorporate the following: Assessment that directs and supports effectual learning approaches. Assessment that accurately and dependably measures projected learning results, especially in higher education. Assessment and evaluation that identifies and defends academic standards. To what extent does this curriculum cater for the needs of 21st century learners? It does not satisfactorily reflect the goal of the Melbourne Declaration, which is, that young Australian students should become creative, inventive, resourceful and ultimately successful learners. Students should be able to think rationally and effectively assess evidence, in order to solve problems in the numerous learning areas and courses, both independently and collaboratively. The segmentation in the curriculum does not effectively integrate across all the learning areas. The document fails to sufficiently focus on imagination, thinking skills and student engagement. Thus, it fails to sufficiently cater for the needs of the 21st century learners. Conclusion The Australian Curriculum is an effective document that guides the learning and teaching practices in Australia. The efficiency of the scope and structure of the curriculum has been successful over the years, by producing innovative and well-informed students, hence promoting the positive advancement and growth of the Australian Community in its entirety. Buy custom Structure and Development of Australian Curriculum essay
Sunday, March 1, 2020
School Supplies List for College Students Heading to college? Youll soon find that your workÃ is a little more intense compared to high school, so you will need the right supplies to help meet the challenge. A basic list that includesÃ lined paper, folders, pens, and pencils, is a given. But to get the most out ofÃ your study time, youll need a few extras. The items listed here should cover most all your bases, although your professors will likely hand out aÃ syllabusÃ during the first week of class that will list additional items specific to that particular course. To Keep With You Whether you use a backpack or a tote bag to carry your stuff around, make sure these items are always inside, along with the basics listed above: Post-ItÃ¢â ¢ Flags: Dont ever read an academic book without sticky note flags! These little wonders are great for keeping track of important passages when reading a book. Theyre also handy for marking pages when writing book reviews and research papers.Ã Student Planner: Every professor will supply students with a syllabus that lists assignment due dates and test dates. Youll want to record these dates right away! As soon as you receive that syllabus, start recording your due dates. You should also consider using the sticky note flags for test days or due dates. From day one, the planner will become your new best friend when it comes to staying on top of your studies.Tiny Stapler: To make sure you dont lose important information, keep a stapler on hand for those times when professors hand out stacks of papers for you to read, and for assembling and turning in assignments of your own. Your friends will love you if youre always equipped with this essential tool.Highlighters: Highli ghters are useful for pointing out important terms and definitions in workbooks and articles. You can also use different colors of highlighter to create a code for different topics when conducting research. Calculator: If you sign up for any kind of math class, expect to invest in the right calculator for the job.MLA Style Guide: Most freshman-year classes require writing essays- and, depending on your major, you might write essays for the majority of your classes until you graduate. In any event, most professors will expect you to use MLA guidelines. Theyll be looking for very specific formatting on title pages, essays, and bibliographies. The style guide will show you how to format citations, page numbers, and more.Index Cards: Youll go through hundreds of index cards in college. Nothing can compete with themÃ when it comes to memorizing terms and definitions, andÃ flashcards are essential for studying for tests.Memory Stick: These little devices are sometimes called flash drives or jump drives, but the name is not important. Youll need a portable storage deviceÃ of some kind for backing up copies of your work.Blue Book: These small, blue-colored bookletsÃ are used for essay-t ype exams and are available for purchase at your university bookstore. You should keep one on hand at all times since test dates can sneak up on you. For YourStudy Space Carve out a spot in your dorm room, bedroom, or other space, and devote it specifically to your studies. It should hold a bright lamp, a desk large enough to work on with your computer or tablet, and a printer if you choose to buy one instead of using those in the computer lab. It should also have enough blank wall space to hold a large calendar and a bulletin board. Here are our suggestions on how to stock this space: Big Wall Calendar: Record all due dates on a big wall calendar that you can see when you enter your room.Colored Stickers: Use color-coded stickers on your big wall calendar, like blue dots for test days and yellow dots for assignment due dates.Printer paper: Keep a stock of paper on hand for printing out assignments. Dont be late turning in a paper because you couldnt print it out!Post-It Cover-Up Tape: This tape is great for studying for a test.Ã Use it to cover up keywords in your notes, a textbook, or a study guide, and voil, you have a fill-in-the-blank test. It sticks lightly to the paper to cover up words or definitions, so you can cover up a word, print on the tape, and peel it off to see if your answer matches the answer underneath the tape.Glue, Scissors, and Tape: You may not need these items very often, but when you need them, you really need them.Bulletin Board and Pins: Organize your life and keep family photos close at hand with a bulletin board. Luxury Items These are by no means necessary, and they can be expensive, but they will make your study time much more productive. Smartpen by Livescribe:Ã This is a favorite tool for math students, who always seem to get it when the teacher lectures and works out problems, but then lose it when they sit down to work the problems on their own. The SmartpenÃ will allow you toÃ record a lecture while taking notes, and then afterwardÃ place the pen tip on any word or drawing and listen to the part of the lecture that was taking place when those notes were recorded.Ã Post-ItÃ¢â ¢ Easel Pads:Ã This item is useful for brainstorming, especially in a study-group setting. Its basically a pad of giant sticky notes that you can cover with a mind-dump of notes, list items, ideas, etc., and then stick to theÃ wall or any other surface.Notebook Computer:Ã You will have access to computer labs on campus, but a notebook computer will free you up to do your work anywhere. If you have a laptop already, great, but you may find a notebook to be easier to use, more compact, and lighter to carry.Ã Printer/Scanner: YoullÃ be able to print your work out on your schools printers, but having your own is much more convenient- and it will allow you to check your work more easily. Make sure to get one with scanning capabilities. Scanners can be used toÃ create study guides from your books, which will help you in everything from preparing for tests toÃ writing a research paper. Laptop or Computer Notebook:Ã Again, youll have access to computer labs on campus, but owning a laptop or computer notebook with a click-on keyboard will free you up to do your work anywhere.Smartphone:Ã While your professorsÃ will likely not allow phones in their classrooms, having access to a smartphone will enable you to use a wealth of education-specific apps once you are away from the classroom.
Friday, February 14, 2020
The Systems Development Life Cycle - Essay Example This involved establishing the business processes used by the company. This is necessary so that the processes are redesigned to take advantage of the modern system solutions operating characteristics. Data analysis is also quite useful in the determination of the system requirements. To accomplish this, a study on flow of information in the organization is carried out in order to come with dataflow diagrams that will be quite important in the design of the system (Somers & Nelson, 2004, P.258). Decision Analysis is meant to identify the decisions that are made by the manager. The main decisions that are made by the manager are identifiable at in individual level. Gathering of this information will help in the actual development of a system that will assist the managers to make decisions (Somers & Nelson,2004,P.259). This method is valuable when the primary objective of the system is decision support. There was also process analysis that was meant to review business processes of the company. In this stage, the processes of an organization are identifies and divides into a number of events that can either change or add data. Modification and reengineering of these processes help in improving the operations of the organization through improving service, cost reduction, quality and management information The development of an accounting information system can be successful if the process is divided into different phases or stages. The phases in the field of software development is referred to as System development life cycle(SDLC) which comprises Planning and Investigation, System Analysis,Design,Coding ,implementation, maintenance and Follow up. The planning and investigation phase needs the creation of a team to carry out an investigation on the current system and provide recommendations to a steering team. The main focus of the team is to come up with a way handing the request of